THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, 1973
THE CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, 1973
NO.2 OF 1974
[25th January, 1974.]
CHAPTER VII : PROCESSES TO COMPEL THE PRODUCTION OF THINGS
102. Power of police officer to seize certain property
(1) Any police officer may seize any property which may be alleged or suspected to have been stolen, or which may
be found under circumstances which create suspicion of the commission of any offence.
(2) Such police officer, if subordinate to the officer in charge of a police station, shall forthwith report the seizure to
[(3) Every police officer acting under sub-section (1) shall forthwith report the seizure to the Magistrate having
jurisdiction and where the property seized is such that it cannot be, conveniently transported to the Court, he may give
custody thereof to any person on his executing a bond undertaking to produce the property before the Court as and
when required and to give effect to the further orders of the Court as to the disposal of the same.]
103. Magistrate may direct search in his presence
Any Magistrate may direct a search to be made in his presence of any place for the search of which he is competent to
issue a search-warrant.
104. Power to impound document, etc., produced
Any Court may, if it thinks fit, impound any document or thing produced before it under this Code.
105. Reciprocal arrangements regarding processes
(1) Where a Court in the territories to which this Code extends (hereafter in this section referred to as the said
territories) desires that -
(a) a summons to an accused person, or
(b) a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or
(c) a summons to any person requiring him to attend and produce a document or other thing, or to produce it, or
(d) a search-warrant,
[issued by it shall be served or executed at any place,-
(i) within the local jurisdiction of a Court in any State or area in India outside the said territories, it may send such
summons or warrant in duplicate by post or otherwise, to the presiding officer of that Court to be served or executed; and where any summons referred to in clause (a) or clause (c) has been so served, the provisions of section 68 shall
apply in relation to such summons as if the presiding officer of the Court to whom it is sent were a Magistrate in the said
(ii) in any country or place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made by the Central
Government with the Government of such country or place for service or execution of summons or warrant in relation to
criminal matters (hereafter in this section referred to as the contracting State), it may send such summons or warrant in
duplicate in such form, directed to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, and sent to such authority for transmission, as the
Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.]
(2) Where a Court in the said territories has received for service or execution-
(a) a summons to an accused person, or
(b) a warrant for the arrest of an accused person, or
(c) a summons to any person requiring him to attend and produce a document or other thing or to produce it, or
(d) a search-warrant,
(1) a Court in any State or area in India outside the said territories;
(2) a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State,
it shall cause the same to be served or executed] as if it were a summons or warrant received by it from another Court in
the said territories for service or execution within its local jurisdiction; and where-
(i) a warrant of arrest has been executed, the person arrested shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in accordance
with the procedure prescribed by sections 80 and 81;
(ii) a search-warrant has been executed, the things found in the search shall, so far as possible, be dealt with in
accordance with the procedure prescribed by section 101:
[Provided that in a case where a summons or search-warrant received from a contracting State has been executed,
the documents or things produced or things found in the search shall be forwarded to the Court issuing the summons or
search-warrant through such authority as the Central Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf].
[CHAPTER VII A : RECIPROCAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR ASSISTANCE IN CERTAIN MATTERS AND PROCEDURE
FOR ATTACHMENT AND FORFEITURE OF PROPERTY
In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise requires,-
(a) "contracting State" means any country or place outside India in respect of which arrangements have been made
by the Central Government with the Government of such country through a treaty or otherwise;
(b) "identifying" includes establishment of a proof that the property was derived from, or used in, the Commission of
(c) "proceeds of crime" means any property derived or obtained directly or indirectly, by any person as a result of
criminal activity (including crime involving currency transfers) or the value of any such property; (d) "property" means property and assets of every description whether corporeal or incorporeal, movable or
immovable, tangible or intangible and deeds and instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such property or assets
derived or used in the Commission of an offence and includes property obtained through proceeds of crime;
(e) "tracing" means determining the nature, source, disposition, movement, title or ownership of property.
105B. Assistance in securing transfer of persons
(1) Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, desires that a warrant for arrest of any person to attend or
produce a document or other thing issued by it shall be executed in any place in a contracting State, it shall send such
warrant in duplicate in such form to such Court, Judge or Magistrate through such authority, as the Central Government
may, by notification, specify in this behalf and that Court, Judge or Magistrate, as the case may be, shall cause the same
to be executed.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Code, if, in the course of an investigation or any inquiry into an
offence, an application is made by the investigating officer or any officer superior in rank to the investigating officer that
the attendance of a person who is in any place in a contracting State is required in connection with such investigation or
inquiry and the Court is satisfied that such attendance is so required, it shall issue a summons or warrant, in duplicate,
against the said person to such Court, Judge or Magistrate, in such form as the Central Government may, by notification,
specify in this behalf, to cause the same to be served or executed.
(3) Where a Court in India, in relation to a criminal matter, has received a warrant for arrest of any person requiring
him to attend or attend and produce a document or other thing in that Court or before any other investigating agency,
issued by a Court, Judge or Magistrate in a contracting State, the same shall be executed as if it is the warrant received
by it from another Court in India for execution within its local limits.
(4) Where a person transferred to a contracting State pursuant to sub-section (3) is a prisoner in India, the Court in
India or the Central Government may impose such conditions as that Court or Government deems fit.
(5) Where the person transferred to India pursuant to sub-section (1), or sub-section (2) is a prisoner in a contracting
State, the Court in India shall ensure that the conditions subject to which the prisoner is transferred to India are
complied with and such prisoner shall be kept in such custody subject to such conditions as the Central Government may
direct in writing.
105C. Assistance in relation to orders of attachment or forfeiture of property
(1) Where a Court in India has reasonable grounds to believe that any property obtained by any person is derived or
obtained, directly or indirectly, by such person from the commission of an offence, it may make an order of attachment
or forfeiture of such property, as it may deem fit under the provisions of sections 105D to 105J (both inclusive).
(2) Where the Court has made an order for attachment or forfeiture of any property under sub-section (1), and such
property is suspected to be in a contracting State, the Court may issue a letter of request to a Court or an authority in
the contracting State for execution of such order.
(3) Where a letter of request is received by the Central Government from a Court or an authority in a contracting
State requesting attachment or forfeiture of the property in India, derived or obtained, directly or indirectly, by any
person from the commission of an offence committed in that contracting State, the Central Government may forward
such letter of request to the Court, as it thinks fit, for execution in accordance with the provisions of sections 105D to
105J (both inclusive) or, as the case may be, any other law for the time being in force.
105D. Identifying unlawfully acquired property
(1) The Court shall, under sub-section (1), or on receipt of a letter of request under sub-section (3) of section 105C,
direct any police officer not below the rank of Sub-Inspector of Police to take all steps necessary for tracing and
identifying such property. (2) The steps referred to in sub-section (1) may include any inquiry, investigation or survey in respect of any person,
place, property, assets. documents, books of account in any bank or public financial institutions or any other relevant
(3) Any inquiry, investigation or survey referred to in sub-section (2) shall be carried out by an officer mentioned in
sub-section (1) in accordance with such directions issued by the said Court in this behalf.
105E. Seizure or attachment of property
(1) Where any officer conducting an inquiry or investigation under section 105D has a reason to believe that any
property in relation to which such inquiry or investigation is being conducted is likely to be concealed, transferred or
dealt with in any manner which will result in disposal of such property, he may make an order for seizing such property
and where it is not practicable to seize such property, he may make an order of attachment directing that such property
shall not be transferred or otherwise dealt with, except with the prior permission of the officer making such order, and a
copy of such order shall be served on the person concerned.
(2) Any order made under sub-section (1) shall have no effect unless the said order is confirmed by an order of the
said Court, within a period of thirty days of its being made.
105F. Management of properties seized or forfeited under this Chapter
(1) The Court may appoint the District Magistrate of the area where the property is situated, or any other officer that
may be nominated by the District Magistrate, to perform the functions of Administrator of such property.
(2) The Administrator appointed under sub-section (1) shall receive and manage the property in relation to which the
order has been made under sub-section (1) of section 105E or under section 105H in such manner and subject to such
conditions as may be specified by the Central Government.
(3) The Administrator shall also take such measures, as the Central Government may direct, to dispose of the
property which is forfeited to the Central Government.
105G. Notice of forfeiture of property
(1) If as a result of the inquiry, investigation or survey under section 105D, the Court has reason to believe that all or
any of such properties are proceeds of crime, it may serve a notice upon such person (hereinafter referred to as the
person affected) calling upon him within a period of thirty days in the notice to indicate the source of income, earnings or
assets, out of which or by means of which he has acquired such property, the evidence on which he relies and other
relevant information and particulars, and to show cause why all or any of such properties, as the case may be, should not
be declared to be proceeds of crime and forfeited to the Central Government.
(2) Where a notice under sub-section (1) to any person specifies any property as being held on behalf of such person
by any other person, a copy of the notice shall also be served upon such other person.
105H. Forfeiture of property in certain cases
(1) The Court may, after considering the explanation, if any, to the show-cause notice issued under section 105G and
the material available before it and after giving to the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any
property specified in the notice through any other person, to such other person also) a reasonable opportunity of being
heard, by order, record a finding whether all or any of the properties in question are proceeds of crime :
Provided that if the person affected (and in a case where the person affected holds any property specified in the notice
through any other person such other person also) does not appear before the Court or represent his case before it within
a period of thirty days specified in the show-cause notice, the Court may proceed to record a finding under this subsection ex parte on the basis of evidence available before it. (2) Where the Court is satisfied that some of the properties referred to in the show-cause notice are proceeds of crime
but it is not possible to identify specifically such properties, then, it shall be lawful for the Court to specify the properties
which, to the best of its judgement, are proceeds of crime and record a finding accordingly under sub-section (1).
(3) Where the Court records a finding under this section to the effect that any property is proceeds of crime, such
property shall stand forfeited to the Central Government free from all encumbrances.
(4) Where any shares in a company stand forfeited to the Central Government under this section, then, the company
shall, notwithstanding anything contained in the Companies Act 1956 (1 of 1956) or the articles of association of the
company, forthwith register the Central Government as the transferee of such shares.
105I. Fine in lieu of forfeiture
(1) Where the Court makes a declaration that any property stands forfeited to the Central Government under section
105H and it is a case where the source of only a part of such property has not been proved to the satisfaction of the
Court, it shall make an order giving an option to the person affected to pay, in lieu of forfeiture, a fine equal to the
market value of such part.
(2) Before making an order imposing a fine under sub-section (1), the person affected shall be given a reasonable
opportunity of being heard.
(3) Where the person affected pays the fine due under sub-section (1), within such time as may be allowed in that
behalf, the Court may, by order, revoke the declaration of forfeiture under section 105H and thereupon such property
shall stand released.
105J. Certain transfers to be null and void
Where after the making of an order under sub-section (1) of section 105E or the issue of a notice under section 105G,
any property referred to in the said order or notice is transferred by any mode whatsoever such transfers shall, for the
purposes of the proceedings under this Chapter, be ignored and if such property is subsequently forfeited to the Central
Government under section 160H, then the transfer of such property shall be deemed to be null and void.
105K. Procedure in respect of letter of request
Every letter of request, summons or warrant, received by the Central Government from, and every letter of request,
summons or warrant, to be transmitted to a contracting State under this Chapter shall be transmitted to a contracting
State or, as the case may be, sent to the concerned Court in India in such form and in such manner as the Central
Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf.
105L. Application of this Chapter
The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that the application of this Chapter in relation
to a contracting State with which reciprocal arrangements have been made, shall be subject to such conditions,
exceptions or qualifications as are specified in the said notification.]
CHAPTER XXXIV : DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY
451. Order for custody and disposal of property pending trial in certain cases
When any property is produced before any Criminal Court during any inquiry or trial, the Court may make such order as
it thinks fit for the proper custody of such property pending the conclusion of the inquiry or trial, and, if the property is
subject to speedy and natural decay, or if it is otherwise expedient so to do, the Court may, after recording such
evidence as it thinks necessary, order it to be sold or otherwise disposed of.
Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, "property" includes- (a) property of any kind or document which is produced before the Court or which is in its custody.
(b) any property regarding which an offence appears to have been committed or which appears to have been used for
the commission of any offence.
452. Order for disposal of property at conclusion of trial
(1) When an inquiry or trial in any Criminal Court is concluded, the Court may make such order as it thinks fit for the
disposal, by destruction, confiscation or delivery to any person claiming to be entitled to possession thereof or otherwise,
of any property or document produced before it or in its custody, or regarding which any offence appears to have been
committed, or which has been used for the commission of any offence.
(2) An order may be made under sub-section (1) for the delivery of any property to any person claiming to be entitled
to the possession thereof, without any condition or on condition that he executes a bond, with or without sureties, to the
satisfaction of the Court, engaging to restore such property to the Court if the order made under sub-section (1) is
modified or set aside on appeal or revision.
(3) A Court of Session may, instead of itself making an order under sub-section (1), direct the property to be
delivered to the Chief Judicial Magistrate, who shall thereupon deal with it in the manner provided in sections 457, 458
(4) Except where the property is livestock or is subject to speedy and natural decay, or where a bond has been
executed in pursuance of sub-section (2), an order made under sub-section (1) shall not be carried out for two months,
or when an appeal is presented, until such appeal has been disposed of.
(5) In this section, the term "property" includes, in the case of property regarding which an offence appears to have
been committed, not only such property as has been originally in the possession or under the control of any party, but
also any property into or for which the same may have been converted or exchanged, and anything acquired by such
conversion or exchange, whether immediately or otherwise.
453. Payment to innocent purchaser of money found on accused
When any person is convicted of any offence which includes, or amounts to, theft or receiving stolen property, and it is
proved that any other person bought the stolen property from him without knowing or having reason to believe that the
same was stolen, and that any money has on his arrest been taken out of the possession of the convicted person, the
Court may, on the application of such purchaser and on the restitution of the stolen property to the person entitled to the
possession thereof, order that out of such money a sum not exceeding the price paid by such purchaser be delivered to
454. Appeal against orders under section 452 or section 453
(1) Any person aggrieved by an order made by a Court under section 452 or section 453, may appeal against it to the
Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from convictions by the former Court.
(2) On such appeal, the Appellate Court may direct the order to be stayed pending disposal of the appeal, or may
modify, alter or annul the order and make any further orders that may be just.
(3) The powers referred to in sub-section (2) may also be exercised by a Court of appeal, confirmation or revision
while dealing with the case in which the order referred to in sub-section (1) was made.
455. Destruction of libellous and other matter
(1) On a conviction under section 292, section 293, section 501 or section 502 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860),
the Court may order the destruction of all the copies of the thing in respect of which the conviction was had, and which
are in the custody of the Court or remain in the possession or power of the person convicted. (2) The Court may, in like manner, on a conviction under section 272, section 273, section 274 or section 275 of the
Indian Penal Code (45) of 1860), order the food, drink, drug or medical preparation in respect of which the conviction
was had, to be destroyed.
In Tamil Nadu, w.e.f. 21st September, 1981
In sub-section (1), after the words "section 292" the words"section 292A" shall be inserted.
456. Power to restore possession of immovable property
(1) When a person is convicted of an offence attended by criminal force or show of force or by criminal intimidation,
and it appears to the Court that, by such force or show of force or intimidation, any person has been dispossessed of any
immovable property, the Court may, if it thinks fit, order that possession of the same be restored to that person after
evicting by force, if necessary, any other person who may be in possession of the property:
Provided that no such order shall be made by the Court more than one month after the date of the conviction.
(2) Where the Court trying the offence has not made an order under sub-section (1), the Court of appeal, confirmation
or revision may, if it thinks fit, make such order while disposing of the appeal, reference or revision, as the case may be.
(3) Where an order has been made under sub-section (1), the provisions of section 454 shall apply in relation thereto
as they apply in relation to an order under section 453.
(4) No order made under this section shall prejudice any right or interest to or in such immovable property which any
person may be able to establish in a civil suit.
457. Procedure by police upon seizure of property
(1) Whenever the seizure of property by any police officer is reported to a Magistrate under the provisions of this
Code, and such property is not produced before a Criminal Court during an inquiry or trial, the Magistrate may make
such order as he thinks fit respecting the disposal of such property or the delivery of such property to the person entitled
to the possession thereof, or if such person cannot be ascertained, respecting the custody and production of such
(2) If the person so entitled is known, the Magistrate may order the property to be delivered to him on such conditions
(if any) as the Magistrate thinks fit and if such person is unknown, the Magistrate may detain it and shall, in such case,
issue a proclamation specifying the articles of which such property consists, and requiring any person who may have a
claim thereto, to appear before him and establish his claim within six months from the date of such proclamation.
458. Procedure where no claimant appears within six months
(1) If no person within such period establishes his claim to such property, and if the person in whose possession such
property was found is unable to show that it was legally acquired by him, the Magistrate may by order direct that such
property shall be at the disposal of the State Government and may be sold by that Government and the proceeds of such
sale shall be dealt with in such manner as may be prescribed.
(2) An appeal shall lie against any such order to the Court to which appeals ordinarily lie from convictions by the
459. Power to sell perishable property
If the person entitled to the possession of such property is unknown or absent and the property is subject to speedy and
natural decay, or if the Magistrate to whom its seizure is reported is of opinion that its sale would be for the benefit of the owner, or that the value of such property is less than ten rupees, the Magistrate may at any time direct it to be sold;
and the provisions of sections 457 and 458 shall, as nearly as may be practicable, apply to the net proceeds of such sale.